Reef building corals are the foundations of coral reefs. They produce the physical structure and complexity that provide habitat for the many thousands of species. However, their abundance is greatly threatened and as environmental conditions change we see other benthic taxa starting to outcompete corals and dominate which can lead to new less biodiverse alternative ecological states. Shifts from one dominant state to another are often termed phase shifts and knowledge of the key factors that increase and/or decrease the probability of such phase shifts occurring are needed so that direct conservation action can intervene to prevent a net reduction in reef biodiversity. The shift from coral to algal dominance has been well documented in the Caribbean and appears commonplace. However, on the mega biodiverse reefs of the Coral Triangle there has been no such shift. One hypothesis is that the feeding rate and behaviour of herbivorous fish reduce the ability of algae to become dominant. There is thus an urgent need to quantify the amount of herbivory occurring on reefs of the Wakatobi using a combination of behavioural-based studies of specific key herbivores across functional groups (browsers, grazers, scrapers and excavators) and assessment of actual grazing rates occurring per unit area of reef. Recent research has suggested that the presence of key predators of fish can influence herbivore-feeding behaviour. Further studies could also examine how the presence of large predators such as large emperors, snappers and giant-and/or bluefin trevally influence the behaviour of herbivores using feeding assays and decoy predators. This is an extremely important piece of research that will help identify the key issues facing the reefs of this biodiversity hotspot. Information gained will feed directly into predictions of future health and help inform effective conservation strategies.
There is a triangle of reefs in Eastern Indonesia that have the highest diversity of hard coral genera, the proxy commonly used to assess overall diversity of coral reefs anywhere in the world. Both the marine research stations being used by the Opwall teams are in the centre of this triangle. The South Buton Marine Training and Research Centre has established a series of standard monitoring sites on reefs south of Bau Bau and around the surrounding small islands, with the objective being to use the data to develop plans for conserving these reefs. The Hoga Island Marine Research Station is located in the heart of the Wakatobi Marine National Park. Over the last 20 years, a series of scientists have been based at this site during the Opwall survey seasons and as a result, this is now the most published site in the Coral Triangle. For the last 14 years a series of constant monitoring sites around Hoga and eastern Kaledupa have been monitored for macroinvertebrates, fish communities, coral cover and community structure. The 2019 season will complete this monitoring plus some additional research projects.
The South Buton marine research centre opened in 2013 and has established a series of standard monitoring sites on reefs south of Bau Bau and around the adjacent islands. These are being monitored annually and it is hoped to use the data to demonstrate that a number of the reefs in this area are of high conservation value. Preliminary social studies have commenced as of 2017, involving interviewing fishermen and other local stakeholders to gauge areas of high fishing pressure and the preferred catch methods. The next step is then to begin implementing some conservation management strategies involving all of the local stakeholders in the near future. There is also a small team at this site working in collaboration with the Global Fin Print Project, which monitors shark and ray populations through the use of baited remote underwater video systems.
The Hoga Island marine research station is located in the heart of the Wakatobi Marine National Park. Over the last 20 years a series of scientists have been based at this site during the Opwall survey seasons and have built up the publications emanating from the site to a level which is unsurpassed by any other marine research site in the Coral Triangle. These data and publications have been used to promote the biodiversity value of the Wakatobi, raise its profile internationally and in particular enable it to be designated as a Biosphere Reserve. For the last 12 years a series of constant monitoring sites around Hoga and eastern Kaledupa have been monitored for fish communities, coral cover and community structure and macro-invertebrates. In addition annual fisheries monitoring is being completed to assess changes in the fisheries particularly as some of the management initiatives developed by Opwall (e.g. buy outs of fishing licences and carrageenan extraction) begin to hopefully have an impact. Alongside these long-term monitoring projects there are also newer projects such as a coral restoration program and seagrass monitoring to provide a wide range of opportunities to all.
At the marine sites during the day, the weather is normally sunny and warm (around 30 degrees Celsius), and the night temperatures drop to around 20-25 degrees Celsius. Being on the coast means there is often a pleasant breeze so it does not always feel this hot. It rains rarely, but when it does it tends to be very heavy for short periods of time.
Fitness level required
Low-Moderate. Some fitness is required for in water activities, but conditions are relatively easy.
Facilities on Hoga are comfortable, but very basic – the site has shared huts with beds and mattresses and a mandi style bathroom (squat toilet and bucket shower) attached. There is very limited cell phone signal which can usually only be used with an Indonesian SIM card and no Wifi access.